Manuscript Evidence Supporting
the King James Bible
UPDATED February 11, 2002
HERE to read Part 2 of this study, entitled "Missing, Incomplete, and
Problem Verses in the NIV (and most other Bibles)". Added February 11,
HERE to see (based upon the faith OF Christ) why I reject the
New King James Bible.
This study will begin by quoting an
article from the Encarta Encyclopedia 96 CD (emphasis is mine):
time, some Christian scholars treated the Greek of the New Testament as a
special kind of religious language, providentially given as a proper vehicle for
the Christian faith. It is now clear from extrabiblical writings of the
period that the language of the New Testament is koine, or common Greek, that
which was used in homes and marketplaces.1
As confirmed by the above
excerpt from the Encarta Encyclopedia, the Greek Manuscripts of the New
Testament were written in the "common" KOINE GREEK, which was the
dialect used by the common Greek speaking citizens of New Testament times.
The fact that the New Testament was written in KOINE GREEK
is also confirmed by Mindscape Reference Library for PCs, copyright
New Testament, the distinctively Christian portion of the
BIBLE, 27 books dating from the earliest Christian period, transmitted in
koiné, a popular form of Greek spoken in the biblical regions from
the 4th cent. B.C.2
There is no question, then, concerning the fact that the New
Testament scriptures were originally written in the Koine Greek dialect. Nor is
there any doubt that in earlier days, a dialect known as ATTIC Greek had
been in use. However, by the time the Apostles walked this earth, Attic Greek
had evolved into the Koine Greek dialect, in which the New Testament manuscripts
Nevertheless, some "Atticisms" were still retained by
Koine Greek; and these "Atticisms" are helpful in determining the extent to
which certain Greek manuscripts were altered by the scribes that copied
It should also be noted that most Greek manuscripts of the New
Testament belong to a family of manuscripts known as the BYZANTINE
TEXT, because these manuscripts were circulated in the region of Byzantium,
where the apostles lived and traveled. The Byzantine Text is commonly
known as the MAJORITY TEXT, since the vast majority of all New
Testament Manuscripts are Byzantine in origin. Even with the discovery of the
Dead Sea Scrolls, still 90% - 95 % of all New Testament manuscripts belong to
the Byzantine family.
However, there is also a small number of Greek
Manuscripts (5% - 10%), which is commonly known as the CRITICAL
TEXT; and it is upon this Text that most modern Bibles are based. The
manuscripts that belong to this family are known as the Alexandrian
manuscripts, because they were copied in the area surrounding Alexandria,
Egypt. But compared to the Majority (Byzantine) Text, these Alexandrian
manuscripts contain a larger number of "Atticisms", and generally have shorter
In the Second Century A.D., some scribes developed a tendency
to add these "Atticisms" to the Koine Greek manuscripts they were copying. At
that time, many Koine Greek manuscripts were therefore altered from the
Koine Greek in which they had originally been written, with the addition
of these "Atticisms".
In fact, Dr. Bruce M. Metzger (no friend of the
King James Bible) describes a possible scenario, in which Second Century scribes
could have added these "Atticisms" to the Koine Greek manuscripts. In his book,
THE TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT (Third,
Enlarged Edition, Copyright 1992 by Oxford University Press, Inc.), Dr. Metzger
makes a reference to research that was published by George D. Kilpatrick. On
pages 177-178, Dr. Metzger makes the following statement (emphasis is mine) -
"In matters on which no firm decision can be made
author's style, he (Dr. Kilpatrick) often
appeals to the criterion of
Atticism, which became one of the
dominant tendencies in literary circles
during the first and
second Christian centuries. He argues that scribes in
second century introduced many Atticisms into the text of the
Testament. Of two readings, therefore, one of which
conforms to Attic canons
and the other does not, he (Dr.
Kilpatrick) is inclined to accept the
non-Attic reading, even
though no early manuscript evidence may support it.
to justify his general disregard for the age and quality of
external evidence, Kilpatrick declares that BY ABOUT A. D.
200 THE GREAT
MAJORITY OF THE DELIBERATE
CHANGES HAD BEEN INTRODUCED INTO THE
STREAM, and that thereafter scribes transmitted
the several forms of text
with great fidelity. Thus, though a
variant reading may happen to be
preserved only in a late
miniscule manuscript, if it is in harmony with what
is taken to
be the author's style or reflects a non-Atticistic tendency,
Kilpatrick is disposed to regard it as original."
So again, there is
no question that certain "Atticisms" were not in the "original autographs", but
were added to the Koine Greek manuscripts at a later date. And since these
"Atticisms" are more prevalent in the Alexandrian manuscripts of the Critical
Text (upon which most modern Bibles are based), this evidence points to the
probability that the Byzantine Text manuscripts (the Majority Text, upon which
the King James Bible is based) could actually be closer to the "original
It is therefore important to realize that a Christian's
preference for the King James Bible is not based upon superstition, as alleged
by some critics. Instead, our decision is based upon the fact that some New
Testament manuscripts were actually altered from the Koine Greek, in which they
were written, with the addition of these "Atticisms". If one fails to understand
this fact, he will also miss the reason why the modern Bibles which are based
upon these manuscripts that contain more "Atticisms" so often disagree with the
King James Bible.
So the goal of this brief study is to show that,
since the King James Bible is based upon the Byzantine Majority Text, which
contains fewer "Atticisms", it is actually based upon more accurate Greek
Manuscripts. By contrast, though, the New International Version, New American
Standard Bible, Revised Standard Version, Berkeley, New World Translation,
Douay, and all other modern Bibles are based to some extent upon the Critical
Text Manuscripts, which contain a larger amount of "Atticisms".
Minority Critical Text Manuscripts, upon which the modern Bibles are based, are
also characterized by the fact that they are all missing certain verses which
are found in the Byzantine Manuscripts (and therefore are present only in the
King James Bible), while other verses have been severely modified. Before we
adopt the attitude that the missing verses in these modern Bibles are of little
importance, though, we must first ask - Who is to determine which verses are
important, and which ones are not? Since "all scripture is given by inspiration
of God" (2 Tim. 3:16), EVERY verse is important. If man is allowed
to judge which verses should be retained and which ones should be cut, there
will be no end to the mischief he can achieve.
There is therefore no
doubt among scholars that the books of the New Testament were originally written
in Koine Greek. The debate now concerns the vast number of differences
between the Minority Critical Text and the Majority Byzantine Text. These
differences arose early, as attempts were made to "reconstruct" the original
Greek text in the 2nd through the 5th Centuries. The method adopted by those
involved in this early reconstruction, however, was completely different from
the method of the Textual Critics today. Whereas today's critics, for the most
part, assume that "the older manuscripts are closer to the originals, and
therefore more accurate", the earliest reconstructers of the Greek Text would
regularly DISCARD older translations in favor of the NEWER, MORE
POPULAR translations. As a result, the older, more accurate readings
were gradually replaced by newer readings that, although "more popular", were
much less accurate. The OLDEST readings, though, have actually been
PRESERVED in the earliest translations of the Greek manuscripts into
other languages (such as the Syriac, the Old Latin, etc). This is
confirmed by another excerpt from the Encarta Encyclopedia (again, emphasis is
Because the New Testament was written in Greek,
the story of the transmission of the text and the establishing of the canon
sometimes neglects the early versions, some of which are older than the oldest
extant Greek text. The rapid spread of Christianity beyond the regions where
Greek prevailed necessitated translations into Syriac, Old Latin, Coptic,
Gothic, Armenian, Georgian, Ethiopic, and Arabic. Syriac and
Latin versions existed as early as the 2nd century, and Coptic
translations began to appear in the 3rd century. These early versions were in no
sense official translations but arose to meet regional needs in worship,
preaching, and teaching. The translations were, therefore, trapped in local
dialects and often included only selected portions of the New Testament. During
the 4th and 5th centuries efforts were made to replace these regional versions
with more standardized and widely accepted translations.3
As a result, since many
older translations were "replaced" with more recent translations at an
early stage, the current approach taken by most of the Textual Critics does not
necessarily hold true. The older Greek Manuscripts of the 4th and 5th Centuries
are NOT always more accurate than later manuscripts. Instead, there is
much proof that certain Byzantine-type manuscripts which were written at a later
date - since they preserve a more ancient reading in the text - match the
"original autographs" of the New Testament writers more closely than the older
Minority Text manuscripts which have been "corrected".
below are 3 of the oldest Greek manuscripts, which contain a larger number of
"Atticisms" than most Byzantine text manuscripts:
(Manuscript "B") - Discovered in the Vatican library in 1481; written
probably about the fourth century.4 Contains the Old Testament, including the Apocryphal books, which are
included as part of the inspired Old Testament text (instead of being placed
separately). Also contains much of the New Testament; however, Vaticanus leaves
out Paul's Pastoral Epistles, Hebrews 9:15 through the end of Hebrews, and the
entire book of Revelation. Vaticanus also includes the Epistle of Barnabas, a
Pseudepigraphical book (or probable false writing), in which it is stated that
the hyena changes sex yearly from male to female5. Kept in the Vatican library in
2. SINAITICUS (Manuscript "ALEPH") - Fourth Century
manuscript found by Tischendorf in St. Catherine's Monastery on Mt. Sinai.
Tischendorf firmly believed that the same hand that wrote Vaticanus also wrote
Sinaiticus. This manuscript also contains the New Testament Apocryphal book, The
Shepherd of Hermas. Currently in the British Museum.
ALEXANDRINAS (Manuscript "A") - Written in the 5th Century, in
many places this manuscript resembles the Textus Receptus, from which the King
James Bible is taken. For instance, Alexandrinas contains the last 10 words of
Ro. 8:1, which are missing in Aleph and B. Currently in the British
In addition, most early translations of the New Testament,
some of which also contain the Old Testament, are from the Byzantine Majority
Text. Only a few are from the Minority Critical text:
1. PESHITTA (or
PESHITTO) - means "simple; easy to be understood". The Peshitta originated
early in the 2nd Century (some even believe it originated in the 1st
Century), as a BYZANTINE TEXT, the family from which the King
James Bible comes. Later, however, efforts were undertaken to "revise" the
Peshitta; therefore, there are actually TWO Peshittas. The older 2nd
Century Peshitta matches the Textus Receptus (or, the RECEIVED
Text of the King James Bible), since it was translated from Byzantine
manuscripts. This 2nd Century Peshitta, also known as THE OLD
SYRIAC, is older than the Diatesseron (mentioned below), and was a
translation of the entire Bible. However, the later, "revised" version of
the Peshitta matches the Minority Critical Text Manuscripts. The fact that
there were TWO Peshittas, one in the 2nd Century, and one in the 5th Century, is
also confirmed by the following two articles (emphasis is mine), again taken
from the Encarta Encyclopedia:
Peshitta, Old Latin, Vulgate,
Other versions include, the Peshitta, or Syriac,
begun perhaps as early as the 1st century AD; the Old
Latin, translated not from the Hebrew but from the Septuagint in the 2nd
century; and the Vulgate, translated from the Hebrew into
Latin by St. Jerome at the end of the 4th century
Damasus I in 382 commissioned St. Jerome to produce a Latin Bible; known as the
Vulgate, it replaces various Old Latin texts. In the 5th century, the
Syriac Peshitta replaced the Syriac versions that had been in popular use up to
that time. As is usually the case, the old versions slowly and painfully
gave way to the new.7
Concerning the Peshitta (or Peshitto), THE COMPANION
BIBLE also states (again emphasis is mine):
"Of these, the
Aramaic (or Syriac), i.e. the Peshitto, is the most important, ranking as
superior in authority to the oldest Greek manuscripts, and dating
from as early as A.D. 170.8
Peshitto means a version simple and plain, without the addition
of allegorical or mystical glosses.9
2. TATIAN'S DIATESSERON - means "before" . This is not a
literal translation, but rather a Harmony of the Gospels, written by Tatian of
Assyria - around 160 - 175 A. D. Tatian was a heretic, according to the Catholic
Church. This Diatesseron was one of the "extrabiblical writings"
mentioned on Page 1 of this study, which was written in Koine
Greek, and which points to the fact that "the language of the New
Testament is Koine, or common Greek, that which was used in homes and
THE OLD LATIN (the ITALA) - This is a 2nd Century Byzantine
Text translation by Tertullian; later this Latin translation was "corrected" by
Jerome, as described below:
4. JEROME'S LATIN VULGATE - In 382,
Pope Damasus 1 instructed Jerome to "revise" the Old Latin. Jerome
therefore "corrected" the Gospels so that they differed noticeably from their
earlier form in the Old Latin, and translated the entire Bible
into Latin; thus was born the Latin Vulgate. "For a thousand years this
was the standard Bible in the Catholic Church."10
Concerning the Vulgate, the ENCARTA
ENCYCLOPEDIA again confirms much of this information (emphasis is
Vulgate (Latin vulgata editio, "popular edition"),
edition of the Latin Bible that was pronounced "authentic" by the Council of
Trent. The name originally was given to the "common edition" of the Greek
Septuagint used by the early Fathers of the Church. It was then transferred to
the Old Latin version (the Itala) of both the Old Testament and the New
Testament that was used extensively during the first centuries in the Western
church. The present composite Vulgate is basically the work of St. Jerome, a
Doctor of the Church.
At first St. Jerome used the Greek Septuagint for his
Old Testament translation, including parts of the Apocrypha; later he consulted
the original Hebrew texts. He produced three versions of the Psalms, called the
Roman, the Gallican, and the Hebrew. The Gallican Psalter, based on a Greek
transliteration of a Hebrew text, is now read in the Vulgate. At the request of
Pope Damasus I in 382, Jerome had previously undertaken a revision of the New
Testament. He corrected the Gospels thoroughly; it is disputed whether the
slight revisions made in the remainder of the New Testament are his
by the above article, Jerome "corrected the Gospels thoroughly", and possibly
other books as well, in his Latin Vulgate. In addition, the International
Bible Encyclopedia, Volume 3, page 1841, also has Jerome "correcting"
the "unskillful scribes" who had written the earlier manuscripts. Thus we have
two DIFFERENT early Latin translations - the OLD Latin (or the
ITALA) of the 2nd Century, and the VULGATE of the 4th Century,
which was Jerome's attempt to "correct" the Old Latin.
Later, in the 16th
Century, several Greek Texts were compiled by various editors. The editors of
these Greek texts had access to the Minority Critical Text, and to
Jerome's Vulgate as a reference. However, these editors all rejected the
Minority Text manuscripts, and unanimously based their Greek texts instead upon
the Majority Text Byzantine Manuscripts, also known as the
1. ERASMUS, using BYZANTINE
manuscripts, edited 5 editions of the Greek New Testament (in addition to his
translation of Greek into Latin in 1505): 1516, 1519, 1522 (he began including 1
John 5:7 in this edition), 1527, and 1535. Erasmus had access to Manuscripts
unavailable to scholars today.
2. STEPHANUS, also using
BYZANTINE Manuscripts, edited 4 editions of the Greek New Testaments in
1546, 1549, 1550, & 1551 (His last text began the practice of dividing
chapters into verses). This text is the one that is usually referred to as the
3. BEZA published several Greek texts beginning
in 1565; these basically followed Stephanus' Greek texts. Beza's 1589 text was
the text generally referred to by the King James translators.
ELZEVIR - Yet another Greek Text based upon Byzantine Manuscripts; completed
The editors of the above Greek texts all based their work upon
Byzantine Text Greek Manuscripts, because the Critical Text
Manuscripts were regarded as being inferior to the earliest translations
of the Greek Manuscripts into other languages, as well as to the Byzantine Text
itself. As previously covered, the earliest translations, in which the oldest
readings are preserved, are "more valuable" than the oldest Greek Texts
themselves, as THE COMPANION BIBLE states in an Appendix
...in determining actual words, or their
form, or sequence, their evidence even by an allusion, as to
whether a verse or verses existed or not in their day, is more valuable
than even manuscripts or Versions.12
translations of the New Testament, based upon the above compiled Greek Texts,
were then made prior to the King James Bible in 1611. Again, many of these
translations also contained the Old Testament. The editors of these Bibles also
had access to various Minority Text Manuscripts, as well as to the Majority
Byzantine Greek texts compiled by the above authors, yet - when determining
which Greek Manuscripts to use for their work - the Minority Text
was again soundly rejected each time. In addition to the Greek Texts of Erasmus
and Stephanus, the COMPANION BIBLE states:
Beza (No. 3 above) and
the Elzevir (No. 4 above) may be considered as being the so-called "Received
Text" which the translators of the Authorized Version used in
Although two of
the English translations - Wycliffe's English translation, and the Douay Version
- were translations of Jerome's Latin Vulgate into English (instead of
being translated from Greek), the New Testament translators who
translated from Greek unanimously chose the Majority Byzantine Greek
1380 - John Wycliffe translated Jerome's
Latin Vulgate into English.
1525 - 1534 -
Tyndale's English Translation: Based upon Erasmus' Greek text,
this was the first complete English translation taken directly from the Greek
New Testament scriptures. Before William Tyndale's translation, the available
copies had been those written by hand in Greek and Latin, which the common
people could not read. Although the Catholic Church had been demanding strict
observance of certain unscriptural practices for years, the faithful common
people had no way of knowing that they were being deceived. Tyndale, an
Anabaptist and a Greek scholar, had been studying in England, when he became
angered by another student's assertion that an understanding of the scriptures
was not necessary for the common people. When the student claimed that the
pope's laws were more important than God's Laws, Tyndale vowed to "one day make
the boy that drives the plow in England to know more of the Scriptures than the
pope does!" From Germany, Tyndale printed the first English Bible to be
translated directly from the Greek Manuscripts, a deed for which he was
ultimately hung. Afterwards, his body was publicly burned as a warning to
others. "Tyndale was a ripe Greek scholar and had access to the Greek text of
Erasmus and other helps which Wycliffe did not possess."14
1535 - Coverdale's
Bible: Translated from a Latin version of Martin
Luther's Bible, this version was mainly a revision of Tyndale's
1537 - Matthew's Bible: Printed by John
Rogers, an associate of Tyndale's. Knowing his name would immediately be
associated with Tyndale's, and unwilling to invite a similar fate, Rogers chose
to call his translation Matthew's Bible.
1539 - Great Bible: Also
printed by Miles Coverdale, who had been widely criticized (and
still is) for translating from Latin which had in turn been translated from
Greek. In answer to his critics, Coverdale then translated the Great Bible from
Erasmus' Greek text, using Matthew's Bible as a guide.
William Wittingham's translation used Beza's Greek text, and
Matthew's Bible. He also divided the text into verses, following
the pattern set by Stephens 1551 text, and introduced the use of italics. This
Bible was the first to use Roman-style print.
1560 - Geneva Bible:
John Calvin wrote the prologue; he and Beza both
oversaw the translation of this Bible. Translated in Geneva, John Bunyan
quoted from it, Shakespeare read it; this was the Bible used by the
Puritans. Also called The Breeches Bible, because it stated that Adam and
Eve made themselves breeches from fig leaves.
1568 - Bishop's
Bible - Commissioned by Queen Elizabeth, this Bible was a
revision of the Great Bible and the Geneva Bible.
Douay Bible (from the Critical Minority Text) - A Roman Catholic Version,
translated from Jerome's Latin Vulgate, this is the generally accepted English
version of the Roman Church.15
1604 - Dr. John Reynolds suggests to King
James that a new translation be made to create ONE version
with authority, combining the best of all the above. King James therefore
appointed 54 scholars to undertake the task; 7 of these 54 died before its
completion in 1611. These scholars based their work upon the Masoretic Text of
the Old Testament, since it had been firmly established as being the correct
text for the Old Testament (that proof, however, is beyond the scope of this
study). The King James scholars based their translation of the New Testament
upon Beza's Greek Text for the New Testament. These translators never claimed to
be inspired, as some supporters of the modern versions have charged. Their first
and most important step was to identify which Greek text to use, since the
entire outcome of their work would be based upon this. A wrong choice here would
invalidate their entire work; therefore, they chose Beza's Greek text, which was
based upon Byzantine Manuscripts.
Johann Griesbach (1745 -
1812) was the first critic of any note to reject the Byzantine Text, which
contains 85 - 95 % of the Greek Manuscripts, and instead based his work upon the
rarely used Minority Critical Text. He gave more "weight" to the
smaller count of the Minority Text, and justified his decision to reject
the larger count of the Majority Text, by arguing that the evidence
should be "weighed, not counted". He therefore decided upon an ARBITRARY
classification of the Greek manuscripts into 4 separate "families" that share
common characteristics, in order to give more "weight" to the Minority
Several other Greek Texts have since been compiled, all based
largely upon the Minority Critical Text manuscripts. In addition to the
previously mentioned Greek text by Griesbach, we now have other Greek
texts compiled by Lachmann in 1842-1850, Tischendorf in 1865-1872,
Tregelles in 1857-1872, Alford in 1862-1871, and Wordsworth
in 1870. In order to justify the use of the Minority Critical Text manuscripts
in these Greek Texts, Wescott & Hort developed their
Geneological Theory, based upon Griesbach's earlier classification of
manuscripts into 4 families. Wescott & Hort next developed the CONFLATE
THEORY, based upon only eight verses, in order to apply their
genealogies. This Conflate Theory makes the assumption that copies of the
"originals" were split into two "families" of manuscripts in two separate
geographical regions, with the Eastern family residing around Alexandria, Egypt,
and the Western family in Rome, Italy. According to this theory, copies were
then made and handed down, and "scribal errors" soon crept in at each location,
thereby uniquely marking each "family" with its own shared set of errors. Later,
some scribe supposedly sat down with manuscripts from each "family" and combined
both into the Byzantine Majority Text, which was a "conflation" of the
The Conflate Theory is based upon only 8 verses, found in 2 New
Testament books: Mk. 6:33, 8:26, 9:38, 9:49, Luke 9:10, 11:54, 12:18, &
24:53. The Eastern (Alexandrinan) texts all have similar characteristics; all
have the shorter reading. The Western texts also commonly add to the text. The
Conflate Theory has since been proven false by Dean Burgon (1882), Bousset
(1894), Burkitt (1904), Voobus (1947), Dr. Edward Hills (1950), and others. Of
these, Dean John Burgon lists 7 "notes of truth" for his rejection of the
Conflate Theory, and his subsequent endorsement of the Majority Byzantine
2. The Number (or the COUNT) of the witnesses (the
vast majority of Greek New Testament manuscripts are of the Byzantine type) is
more important than the WEIGHT.
3. Variety of the evidence (called
5. Respectability (the WEIGHT of the
7. Internal considerations (internal
Consider John 7:53 - 8:11, for example, which is omitted
by many of the older (Critical Text) manuscripts. Beginning in John 7:45, after
Jesus' appearance at the Feast of Tabernacles, the officers are talking alone
with the chief priests and Pharisees, including Nicodemus. Jesus is nowhere in
the picture. If we follow the "older" manuscripts and jump from John 7:52 to
8:11, suddenly Jesus is there in the midst of them in the Treasury, teaching in
the Temple (verse 20). The context of the passage changes too abruptly in the
Critical text manuscripts; therefore, the INTERNAL evidence is that John 7:53 -
8:11 should be retained in order to give a smooth transition. In addition, these
"missing" verses (or portions of them) were cited by Papius 1n 150 A. D., and
also by Didache in the 2nd Century.
However, the question then arises:
How can verses that are not supposed to be in the Bible (since they are not
contained in the "best" Greek Manuscripts) be quoted before these Manuscripts
Another example is the "long ending" of Mark
16:9-20, which is missing from ONLY two Greek Manuscripts -
Sinaiticus, and Vaticanus. These verses are, however, contained in 216 Greek
Manuscripts, as well as in the earliest translations called the Syriac (the
Peshitta), the Old Latin, and Jerome's Vulgate. In addition, Papias referred to
verse 18 around 100 A.D.; Justyn Martyr quotes verse 20 in 150 A.D.; Ireneas
quotes and remarks on verse 19 in 180 A.D.; Hippolytus (190 - 227 A. D.) quotes
verses 17-19; Vincentius (A.D. 256) quoted two verses at the Seventh Council of
Carthage, held under Cyprian; the Acta Pilati quotes verses 15 - 18 in the 2nd
Century; they are contained in the Apostolotical Constitutions (3rd or 4th
Century); Eusebius (325 A. D.) discusses these verses; Chrystosom (A. D. 400)
refers to verse 9, and states that verses 19 & 20 are "the end of the
Gospel"; Jerome includes them in his Latin translation (the Vulgate); and
finally, Augustine (in A. D. 395 - 430) discusses them as being the work of the
Evangelist Mark, and asserts that they were publicly read in the
churches.16 However, because
ONLY Vaticanus and Sinaiticus do not contain this long ending, it is placed
separately from the rest of the book of Mark in most modern Bibles, thus casting
doubt upon the authenticity of these verses. Those who would refer to these
verses in support of some particular doctrine are therefore doubted, since these
verses are not contained in the "better" manuscripts.
Again, though, the
question must be raised - How could these verses be quoted or referred to by so
many historical witnesses, if they were never contained in Mark's Gospel in the
In fact, those who ascribe to the Conflate Theory fail to
follow their own logic in many cases. For example, although Manuscript "B"
(Vaticanus) is SUPPOSED to be the "best" manuscript, certain modern Bible
translators fail to accept its reading of verses which actually match the
Byzantine Text Manuscripts in passages such as Mt. 22:30, 27:46, 27:49-50, Ro.
13:9-10, or Rev. 11:11 & 12:5. Although Vaticanus and Sinaiticus BOTH
match the Byzantine Text (and therefore the King James rendering) in such
passages, these modern translators chose instead to base their translation of
these verses upon an Eighth Century Manuscript ( "D"). Although
Manuscripts A, B, and Aleph are supposed to be superior, Nestles' Greek Text
also rejects these manuscripts in their rendering of Mk. 3:8; John 4:51, 8:38,
10:22, 12:12, 14:7; Ro. 15:15, 1 Cor. 4:17, and Eph. 4:32 & 5:32.
Luke 24:12, Manuscripts A, B, Aleph, and P45 (supposedly the "best" Greek
Manuscripts), as well as the Syriac, all agree with the Byzantine Text; yet
these are rejected in favor of D, a 5th Century manuscript.
there is also much controversy over the authenticity of the "Johannine Comma" of
1 John 5:7 -
For there are three that bear record in heaven,
the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.
hope to address the evidence for the above passage in a future study. In the
meantime, though, English Roman Catholic Bible scholar Monsignor Knox had it
exactly right in the footnote in his 1944 translation, when he
"This verse does not occur in any good Greek manuscript. But the
Latin versions may have preserved the true text".
Remember, the Old
Latin, being a 2nd Century Byzantine Manuscript, is much closer to the
"originals" than any of the Greek manuscripts, for the simple fact that it was
not "corrected" as were the later Manuscripts. As stated on page 2 of this
study, "During the 4th and 5th centuries efforts were made to replace these
regional versions with more standardized and widely accepted
addition, on page 4 of this study, it is noted that THE COMPANION
BIBLE states in an Appendix (emphasis mine): "...in determining actual
words, or their form, or sequence, their evidence even
by an allusion, as to whether a verse or verses existed or not in their day, is
more valuable than even manuscripts or Versions."12
The oldest translations, then, could
very well preserve older readings, in addition to preserving verses that have
been deleted at a later date (such as the Johannine Comma). In fact, F. F.
Bruce, in The Books and the Parchments, on page 210, actually
confirms this likelihood. After stating that there SHOULD be no Greek
Manuscript evidence for the Johannine Comma (based upon the Conflate Theory),
Bruce then admits that Greek Manuscripts do indeed exist which contain this
In fact, the full text of 1 John 5:6-8, as it
appears in the King James Bible, was actually preserved in the "Old
Latin" (also known as the "Itala"), which was the 2nd Century
Byzantine manuscript translated from Greek into Latin by
Tertullian (who lived from about 160 A.D. to about 220 A.D.). Tertullian
was actually the first known Latin writer to distinctly express the concept of a
Trinity. Although some may claim that Tertullian did not actually believe in the
Trinity as it is taught today (this can be debated), he did include the complete
text of 1 John 5:6-8, as it now appears in the King James Bible,
in his translation of the Old Latin (as witnessed by the manuscript which
is designated "r", which was written approximately 550 A.D.). At about the same
time, Saint Cyprian, the leader of the Christian church in Africa
(Cyprian lived from about 200 A.D. until 258 A.D. when he was beheaded), also
made a direct reference to 1 John 5:7, as it now appears in the King James
When the Greek text of the New Testament was beginning to be
assembled in the so-called Middle Ages, there was enough evidence for the
authenticity of 1 John 5:6-8 that Desiderius Erasmus included
the entire passage in his 1522 edition of the Greek New Testament. Again,
Erasmus actually had access to certain manuscripts and other material in his
time to which today's scholars no longer have access.
later, Stephanus produced his own Greek New Testament, and the edition he
produced in the year 1550 again included the entire text of 1 John
5:6-8 (this Greek text is the same Stephens 1550 Greek Text
referred to in this study). Later, Theodore Beza (who succeeded John
Calvin to become the head of the Protestant Reformation) refined Stephens Greek
text to some extent. As a result, while the full text of 1 John
5:5-8, as it appears in the King James Bible, may not be contained in
the majority of Greek manuscripts, there is compelling evidence for its
The above information is readily verifiable, and offers
ample evidence that the full text of 1 John 5:6-8 was not simply
added by the men who translated the King James Bible itself. Instead, the full
text is actually contained in the Received Text from which this Bible was
translated (including certain Greek manuscripts), and there is sufficient
evidence to indicate that the words were actually penned by the apostle John
In addition to the above mentioned references,
here are some additional footnoted references:
Encarta 96 Encyclopedia CD
2 Mindscape Reference Library for
PCs, copyright 1995:
3 Encarta 96 Encyclopedia CD
THE THOMPSON CHAIN-REFERENCE BIBLE, Fourth Improved Edition, 1982,
Topics & Texts, Pages 180 -181
5 DISPENSATIONAL THEOLOGY by
Charles Baker, Grace Bible College Publications, Fourth Printing, 1986, Page
6 Encarta 96 Encyclopedia CD
COMPANION BIBLE, Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids Michigan, First
10 THE THOMPSON CHAIN-REFERENCE BIBLE,
Fourth Improved Edition, 1982, Topics & Texts, Pages 180 -181
Encarta 96 Encyclopedia CD, "Vulgate"
12 THE COMPANION
BIBLE, Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids Michigan, First Printing, 1990,
Appendix 168, Page 190
13 IBID, Appendix 94, Page 137
THOMPSON CHAIN-REFERENCE BIBLE, Fourth Improved Edition, 1982, Topics
& Texts, Pages 180 -181
16 THE COMPANION BIBLE,
Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids Michigan, First Printing, 1990, Appendix 168,
Missing, Incomplete, and
Problem Verses in the NIV (and most other Bibles)
February 11, 2002
In view of the above study on manuscript evidence
supporting the King James Bible, it should be noted that the NIV actually
deletes numerous passages (while casting doubt upon the authenticity of
others), because it is based upon the above-mentioned "Critical" Text. In the
following addition to this study, partial omissions and variant words in the
Greek Texts are noted by underlined words in the King James passages. Entire
omissions are also denoted.
Mt. 17:21, King James
Bible - Howbeit this kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting.
17:21, NIV - Missing
Mt. 18:11, King James Bible - For the
Son of man is come to save that which was lost.
Mt. 18:11, NIV -
Mt. 23:14, King James Bible - Woe unto you,
scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows' houses, and for a
pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater
Mt. 23:14, NIV - Missing
King James Bible - And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting
lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They
parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast
Mt. 27:35, NIV - When they had crucified him, they divided up
his clothes by casting lots.
Mark 1:2, King James Bible;
quoting from Malachi 3:1 - As it is written in the prophets,
Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before
Mark 1:2, NIV - It is written in Isaiah the prophet: "I
will send my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way" (again,
the quote is from Malachi 3:1; NOT Isaiah the
Mark 7:16, King James Bible - If any man have ears to
hear, let him hear.
Mark 7:16, NIV - Missing.
9:44, King James Bible - Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not
Mark 9:44, NIV - Missing.
King James Bible - Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not
Mark 9:46, NIV - Missing.
King James Bible - But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which is
in heaven forgive your trespasses.
Mark 11:26, NIV -
Mark 15:27, King James Bible - And the scripture
was fulfilled, which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors. (quoted
from Isaiah 53:12.)
Mark 15:28, NIV -
Luke 9:55-56, King James Bible -
55: But he turned, and rebuked them, and said, Ye know not what manner
of spirit ye are of.
56: For the Son of man is not come to
destroy men's lives, but to save them. And they went to another
Luke 9:55-56, NIV -
55 But Jesus turned and rebuked them,
56 and they went to another village.
King James Bible -
9: Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the
week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven
10: And she went and told them that had been with him, as they
mourned and wept.
11: And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and
had been seen of her, believed not.
12: After that he appeared in another
form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country.
they went and told it unto the residue: neither believed they them.
Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them
with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which
had seen him after he was risen.
15: And he said unto them, Go ye into all
the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.
16: He that believeth and
is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.
And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out
devils; they shall speak with new tongues;
18: They shall take up serpents;
and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall lay hands
on the sick, and they shall recover.
19: So then after the Lord had spoken
unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of
20: And they went forth, and preached every where, the Lord working with
them, and confirming the word with signs following. Amen.
NIV - The authenticity of these verses is questioned.
17:36, King James Bible - Two men shall be in the field; the one shall be
taken, and the other left.
Luke 17:36, NIV -
Luke 23:17, King James Bible - (For of necessity
he must release one unto them at the feast.)
Luke 23:17, NIV -
John 3:13, King James Bible - And no man hath
ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man
which is in heaven.
John 3:13, NIV - No one has ever gone
into heaven except the one who came from heaven--the Son of
John 5:3-4, King James Bible -
3: In these
lay a great multitude of impotent folk, of blind, halt, withered, waiting
for the moving of the water.
4: For an angel went down at a certain season
into the pool, and troubled the water: whosoever then first after the troubling
of the water stepped in was made whole of whatsoever disease he
John 5:3, NIV - Here a great number of disabled people
used to lie--the blind, the lame, the paralyzed.
Verse 4 -
John 7:53-8:11, King James Bible -
every man went unto his own house.
1: Jesus went unto the mount of
2: And early in the morning he came again into the temple, and all
the people came unto him; and he sat down, and taught them.
3: And the
scribes and Pharisees brought unto him a woman taken in adultery; and when they
had set her in the midst,
4: They say unto him, Master, this woman was taken
in adultery, in the very act.
5: Now Moses in the law commanded us, that such
should be stoned: but what sayest thou?
6: This they said, tempting him, that
they might have to accuse him. But Jesus stooped down, and with his finger wrote
on the ground, as though he heard them not.
7: So when they continued asking
him, he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is without sin among you,
let him first cast a stone at her.
8: And again he stooped down, and wrote on
9: And they which heard it, being convicted by their own
conscience, went out one by one, beginning at the eldest, even unto the last:
and Jesus was left alone, and the woman standing in the midst.
10: When Jesus
had lifted up himself, and saw none but the woman, he said unto her, Woman,
where are those thine accusers? hath no man condemned thee?
11: She said, No
man, Lord. And Jesus said unto her, Neither do I condemn thee: go, and sin no
John 7:53-8:11, NIV - Missing.
King James Bible - And Philip said, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou
mayest. And he answered and said, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of
Acts 8:37, NIV - Missing.
Acts 15:18, King
James Bible - Known unto God are all his works from the beginning
of the world.
Acts 15:18, NIV - that have been known for ages.
Acts 15:34, King James Bible - Notwithstanding it pleased
Silas to abide there still.
Acts 15:34, NIV -
Acts 24:7, King James Bible -
But the chief
captain Lysias came upon us, and with great violence took him away out of our
Acts 24:7, NIV - Missing (along with the last portion of verse
6, and the first portion of verse 8).
Acts 28:29, King
James Bible - And when he had said these words, the Jews departed, and had great
reasoning among themselves.
Acts 28:29, NIV -
Romans 8:1, King James Bible - There is therefore now
no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the
flesh, but after the Spirit.
Romans 8:1, NIV - Therefore, there is now
no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus
11:6, King James Bible - And if by grace, then is it no more of works:
otherwise grace is no more grace. But if it be of works, then is it no
more grace: otherwise work is no more work.
Romans 11:6, NIV - And if
by grace, then it is no longer by works; if it were, grace would no longer be
1 Cor. 10:28, King James Bible - But if any man say
unto you, This is offered in sacrifice unto idols, eat not for his sake that
shewed it, and for conscience sake: for the earth is the Lord's, and the
fulness thereof: (Quoting from Psalms 24:1)
1 Cor. 10:28, NIV -
But if anyone says to you, "This has been offered in sacrifice," then do not eat
it, both for the sake of the man who told you and for conscience'
Eph. 3:6, King James Bible - That the Gentiles should
be fellowheirs, and of the same body, and partakers of his promise in Christ by
Eph. 3:6, NIV - This mystery is that through the gospel the
Gentiles are heirs together with Israel, members together of one body,
and sharers together in the promise in Christ Jesus. (The words
"with Israel" are added, with
absolutely no manuscript authority whatsoever.)
King James Bible - In whom we have redemption through his blood,
even the forgiveness of sins:
Colossians 1:14, NIV - in whom we have
redemption, the forgiveness of sins.
Col. 4:8, King James
Bible - Whom I have sent unto you for the same purpose, that he
might know your estate, and comfort your hearts;
4:8, NIV - I am sending him to you for the express purpose that you may
know about our circumstances and that he may encourage your
1 John 4:3, King James Bible - And every spirit
that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not
of God: and this is that spirit of antichrist, whereof ye have heard that it
should come; and even now already is it in the world.
1 John 4:3, NIV -
but every spirit that does not acknowledge Jesus is not from God. This is the
spirit of the antichrist, which you have heard is coming and even now is already
in the world.
1 John 5:7, King James Bible - For there are
three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and
these three are one.
1 John 5:7, NIV - The above words are
missing (although the last half of verse 6 is combined with the
first half of verse 8, in order to form a "pseudo"-verse 7).
King James Bible - I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the
ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come,
Rev. 1:8, NIV - "I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the
Lord God, "who is, and who was, and who is to come, the
Rev. 1:11, King James Bible - Saying, I am
Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in
a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and
unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto
Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.
Rev. 1:11, NIV - which said: "Write on
a scroll what you see and send it to the seven churches: to Ephesus, Smyrna,
Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea."
5:10, King James Bible (here, the context concerns "the four beasts and four
and twenty elders" of verse 8) - And hast made us unto
our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the
Rev. 5:10, NIV (here, the context would concern the men
of verse 9, who were purchased "from every tribe and language and people and
nation") - You have made them to be a kingdom and priests to serve
our God, and they will reign on the earth.
5:14, King James Bible - And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four and
twenty elders fell down and worshipped him that liveth for ever and
Rev. 5:14, NIV - The four living creatures said, "Amen,"
and the elders fell down and worshiped.
Rev. 8:13, King
James Bible - And I beheld, and heard an angel flying through the
midst of heaven, saying with a loud voice, Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabiters of
the earth by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels,
which are yet to sound!
Rev. 8:13, NIV - As I watched, I heard an
eagle that was flying in midair call out in a loud voice: "Woe! Woe! Woe
to the inhabitants of the earth, because of the trumpet blasts about to be
sounded by the other three angels!"
Rev. 11:17, King James
Bible - Saying, We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast,
and art to come; because thou hast taken to thee thy great power,
and hast reigned.
Rev. 11:17, NIV - "We give thanks to you, Lord God
Almighty, the One who is and who was, because you have taken your great power
and have begun to reign.
Rev. 13:1, King James Bible - And
I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up
out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns,
and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.
Rev. 13:1, NIV - And the
dragon stood on the shore of the sea. And I saw a beast coming out of the
sea. He had ten horns and seven heads, with ten crowns on his horns, and on each
head a blasphemous name.
Rev. 21:24, King James Bible -
And the nations of them which are saved shall walk in the light of
Rev. 21:24, NIV - The nations will walk by its
Ben R. Webb
The Berean Dispensational Site
Só use as duas Bíblias traduzidas rigorosamente por equivalência formal a partir do Textus Receptus (que é a exata impressão das palavras perfeitamente inspiradas e preservadas por Deus), dignas herdeiras das KJB-1611, Almeida-1681, etc.: a ACF-2011 (Almeida Corrigida Fiel) e a LTT (Literal do Texto Tradicional), que v. pode ler e obter em BibliaLTT.org, com ou sem notas).
(retorne a http://solascriptura-tt.org/
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